Geology Word of the Week(ish): Eustasy
Now that I home for a few weeks, it’s time to get back to the Geology Word of the Week(ish) and a few other random geologic postings. Although my postings were interrupted by ~3 busy months of work and travel, I was starting to go through the alphabet with the Geology Word of the Week(ish). I’m home now for 6 weeks, so I’m going to do my best to post all 6 weeks. That should bring us through to the letter J.
To review, here are the words I’ve done in alphabetical order so far:
This brings us to the letter E… I was pondering various choices, including the very obvious “Earth,” but I finally decided on Eustasy, a very useful and relevant geologic word.
Eustasy is defined as a global change in sea level. The key word in the definition is global– eustasy is not used to refer to local variations in sea level. Rather, a eustatic change in sea level occurs when there is a global change in (a.) the total amount of water in the oceans and/or (b.) the total volume of the ocean basins.
Changes in the total amount of water in the oceans are most often related to glacial-interglacial cycles. Or, to put it more simply, to hot-cold cycles. When the planet is hotter, there is more liquid water in the oceans. When the planet is colder, there is more solid water stored on land as glaciers and ice sheets. There is also more ice stored as ice sheets covering parts of the ocean. When the planet is hotter and there is more liquid water, global sea level rises. When the planet is colder and there is less liquid water, sea level drops.
Motions of Earth’s tectonic plates can also affect sea level. Movement of the plates over millions of years changes the shape of the ocean basins. Although plate tectonic changes (millions of years) occur more slowly than glacial-interglacial cycles (thousands of years), tectonic motion nonetheless can have a big influence on global sea level. When the plates are arranged in such a way that the oceans are wider, sea level will be lower. When the plates are arranged in such a way that the oceans are narrower, sea level will be higher.
In addition to eustatic changes in global sea level, there are also local changes in sea level. Local sea level changes are caused by regional factors, such as local tectonic uplift/depression, gravity, ocean temperature, and ocean currents. For example, sea level in Iceland (one of my favorite geologic locales…) dropped significantly at the end of the last ice age ~13,000-10,000 years ago. During the last ice age (or glacial period), sea level in Iceland was higher by ~50-60 meters. This is because during the last glacial period, Iceland truly was Iceland… the entire island was covered by a thick ice sheet, at least 1km thick and possibly as thick as 2km. The ice sheet even extended beyond the island to the edge of the continental shelf. The large mass of the ice sheet depressed Iceland downwards, raising local sea level. When the ice sheet rapidly melted ~13,000 years ago, Iceland rebounded. That is, the land started rising upwards again. This caused local sea level to drop. Note that this drop is sea level has to be attributed to local rebound. This is because eustatic sea level was rising as ice melted in Iceland and all over the world.
A simplistic way of thinking about eustatic sea level is to think of an ocean like a giant bathtub. When there’s more water, the water level in the bathtub is higher everywhere. When there’s less water, the water level in the bathtub is lower everywhere. Now, extent this metaphor a little. I’ve already explained that plate tectonic movements can change the shape of the ocean basins. So, maybe think of the bathtub as a crazy Alice in Wonderland bathtub that changes shape and size with time. You should also think about the bathtub walls, which are bumpy. These higher-mass bumps have a gravitational influence on the water. The bathwater is attracted to these higher masses. This is true in your bathtub at home, but the effect is so small it’s negligible. On a larger scale in the ocean, the effect is measurable and significant. The surface of the oceans is not level– and not just because of waves and tides and such. The surface of the ocean is bumpy, and these bumps match topography. This is one way we can tell the topography of the ocean floor… from outer space! Satellites actually measure the height of the ocean and infer topography from this. Where the water is higher, the underlying topography is higher. Finally, I encourage you to think outside the bathtub. Just as the bumps on the surface of the bathtub have an influence on the water, so does everything surrounding the bathtub. The continents and the ice sheets also influence the water. Again, the water is attracted to higher masses.
Pretty cool, huh? But why do we care about this, unless you’re interested in seafloor topography? We care because gravity may actually play a role in sea level rise as a result of anthropogenic global warming. Jerry Mitrovica, a geophysicist at the University of Toronto, warns that if you take gravity into account, sea level does not rise evenly as a result of global warming. Rather, sea level may rise more than expected some places on the planet and may actually fall elsewhere. This means that sea level rise may be more catastrophic than previously realized for certain regions.
I worry over global warming and eustasy. Unfortunately, I am also lazy. Even after drinking a cup of tea out of my global warming mug, I usually drive the 5 minutes to work rather than walk or bike. I am lazy other ways, too- I waste paper, I don’t recycle everything, I drink far too many beverages in wasteful cans, I forget to turn lights off sometimes, I sometimes buy bottled water. But I am proud to be working as an Earth Scientist, striving to better understand how the planet works. There are many scientists working hard (myself included) trying to figure out how we might be able to geo-engineer- or at least better understand- the planet so that we can mitigate global warming and sea level rise. Many of us are lazy. Fortunately, we are also smart and we also have science. I’m going to go fill my global warming mug with another cup of tea and then I’m going to go back to picking carbonate crystals for several hours. Because maybe, just maybe, my research will help us understand a little more about the planet and maybe, just maybe, these little carbon dioxide-storing crystals can help us geo-engineer a way out of global warming and eustatic sea level rise. And maybe, just maybe, working hard at science will make up for my laziness in other aspects of my life.
So gutted you didn’t do the mineral ‘cummingtonite’ for C.
Doesn’t the changing density of water with changing temperatures also have an effect on sea level?
Bjornar- absolutely, but I think on a global scale the effect is small relative to the meter-scale variations from changes in water volume and basin volume.
Temperature definitely has an influence on local sea level…
It can even be used in a sentence.
“Twenty years ago, Eustasy that shipwreck off the coast but not anymore since the waters have risen so much.”
Fantastic post. I would give you more than two thumbs up if I only had more of them. I especially like the icelandic isostatic rebound tie-in. I can easily blow my own mind thinking of how the Earth is still responding to the last ice age. Thinking in geologic time is one of the coolest things about studying (as a layperson) geology. Rock On, Evelyn!
You have nothing to be guilty about, your impact on global warming as a consumer is negligible. The impact you could have as a scientist is potentially huge. If there’s a way out of global warming it’s technological and you’re there on the bleeding edge.
Alluvium… alluvium. That sounds so… i dunno…Alluvium…
AARGK: now i can’t get this out of my head. Alluvium…
Are their any good beginner geology books out there.
Not a text book but something written to inform and entertain.
There are many books about geology I can recommend.
John McPhee’s Pulitzer-prize winning “Annals of the Former World” is outstanding. You learn about both geology and geologists in this work.
Simon Winchester has also written a number of books about geology (or perhaps more about the history of geology…). I recommend “The Map that Changed the World,” “Krakatoa,” and “A Crack at the Edge of the World.”
I’ll try to look for something that goes through the basics of geology. I’m not sure if there is a good “Geology for Everyone” book out there. There must be. If not, I’ll have to write one :-).
Holmes’ principles of physical geology is a classic, i recommend that one.
@James K: You have nothing to be guilty about, your impact on global warming as a consumer is negligible. The impact you could have as a scientist is potentially huge.
No one person’s impact on global warming is significant. This is so very far from the point. As long as you’re selling indulgences, however, I work on high-speed networking adapters that might be part of the computer cluster that might solve global warming. Do I get a pass on guilt, too?
It is funny that I have â€œThe Map that Changed the World,â€ and â€œKrakatoa,â€ on my wish list but I did not think of them as geology books. Live and learn.
I do hope that you will write a geology for everyone book if a good one is not to be found.
@spurge: If you do, I’ll propose it for our skeptics book club.
My intent was not to “sell indulgences”, I was trying to be supportive and nice, two things that admittedly do not come naturally to me.
I think personal guilt over adverse outcomes that occur through collective action problems is unnecessary, and wanted to point this out so as to possibly make someone feel less guilty over something they have no control over. So yes, you also get a guilt pass, along with everyone else on the planet.
You just can’t solve a collective action problem with uncoordinated individual actions. If you could, there’d be no need for governments. Unfortunately solving an international collective action problem would require a global government, and we don’t have one of those.
@Buzz Parsec: If anyone (particularly Evelyn) ever reads this, I was of course referring to *her* ever writing such a book, not spurge. Or maybe I meant that if spurge found a good introductory Geology non-textbook. Anyway, someone with a better memory than me should mention this topic to Mary sometime…
Or maybe spurge will become so fascinated with geology that he’ll write the book, in which case we can have a book club special author’s event sometime.
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