One of the great heroes of the skeptical/atheist/humanist communities is Charles Darwin, who is often cited as one of the most influential scientists in history. Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection forms the foundation of the discipline of biology, but his theory has also impacted most academic disciplines in some form or fashion.
In anthropology, one of the ways Darwin’s theory was used was to create a theory of unilineal social evolution, which is no longer recognized as valid today (and, as far as I know, something Darwin himself did not buy into as he was only interested in biological evolution). In fact, this “social Darwinism” was used to further many racist and ethnocentric ideologies of the late 19th century.
One person who worked against this understanding of human social evolution was Franz Boas. In this article, I’m going to tell you a little bit about who Franz Boas was and why I think he should be a well known figure in skeptical and humanist circles.
Franz Boas (1858-1942) was a German-born Jewish man. He received his PhD in physics from the University of Kiel in 1881. His interest in human culture and geography led him to conduct fieldwork among the Inuit of Baffin Island. This fieldwork was pivotal to Boas’s evolving understanding of human culture. After earning his PD in geography, Boas struggled to find academic work in Germany. In early 1887, he began working as assistant editor at the journal Science and decided to permanently emigrate from Germany to the United States due to the increasingly hostile environment in Germany towards Jewish people.
After a stint at the American Museum of Natural History, Boas joined the faculty at Columbia University. When he arrived, anthropologists were spread all across the campus, so Boas worked with the university to form a Department of Anthropology where all of the anthropology professors could be housed. This department would go on to become the first to offer a PhD in anthropology in the United States. At Columbia, Boas mentored many of the most famous American Anthropologists who then spread out across the country, and this lineage is why Boas is now considered the “Father of American Anthropology.”
Now that I’ve given a little bit of biographical background information, let me tell you why I am enamored with “Papa Boas.”
First, Boas encouraged what is known as the four-field approach in anthropology. The idea behind four-field training is that the anthropologist wants a holistic (meaning “whole” or big picture, not as in holistic medicine quackery—see the main definition at that link) understanding of what it means to be human. To do this, American anthropologists are trained in the four subfields of biological (physical) anthropology, archaeology, linguistic anthropology, and cultural anthropology. In England, archaeology is usually considered separate from anthropology, and the English generally refer to their brand of anthropology as social anthropology instead of cultural anthropology.
One of the things I love most about Boas’s work is his introduction of historical particularism and cultural relativism into anthropological inquiry. Historical particularism is the idea that societies have particular or unique histories that inform how their cultures evolve. This concept is in direct opposition to the prevailing unilineal evolutionist paradigm of that time, which stated that all societies evolve teleologically through the same stages (as explicitly laid out by E.B. Tylor’s progressive stages from “primitive” to “civilized”).
I know “relativism” is often a dirty word among many skeptics, but I find that this is generally based on a conflation of any kind of “relativism” with “moral relativism.” Cultural relativism as introduced by Boas is simply a method of anthropological inquiry that says that the best way to understand why a culture is the way it is (or why people within a society do things in a certain way) is to gain an emic (or insider’s) understanding. Cultural relativism as a method is the rejection of ethnocentrism when trying to learn about other societies. Cultural relativism should not be conflated with moral relativism, which is the idea that there are no objective or absolute moral or ethical standards such that morals should never be judged as objectively good or bad. Cultural relativism is a method that seeks to suspend value judgments in order to understand a particular phenomenon. Anthropologists also draw on an eitc (outsider’s) understanding, not during the process of data collection but during data analysis and writing the ethnography.
Moral relativism has very little to do with Boasian cultural relativism. Boas himself held very strong views about the morality of racism and human rights. For Boas (and for American anthropologists today), an attempt to approach other cultural systems with dispassionate objectivity (i.e., cultural relativism) did not entail moral disengagement from the world (i.e., moral relativism). In this way, Boasian cultural relativism is an attempt to apply scientific objectivity to the study of human culture.
An example of Boas’s methodological cultural relativism can be found in his 1889 article “On Alternating Sounds” (open access link, click on “Get PDF” link on the right to view the full article). In this article, Boas addresses the problems that linguists had when recording languages with radically different phonetic systems than their own native language. Linguists at the time (particularly Daniel Garrison Brinton, to whom the article was responding) argued that Native American languages had certain sounds that regularly alternated and that these alternating sounds were not a function of individual accents or mispronunciations. Drawing on the prevailing social evolutionary theories of the time, Brinton suggested that the extensive inconsistency of sounds within these languages signaled linguistic inferiority and thus evidenced Native Americans’ lower position on the social evolution ladder.
Boas recognized what Brinton was talking about as he, too, encountered this phenomenon while conducting fieldwork among the Inuit on Baffin Island as well as the Kwakiutl Indians of the Pacific Northwest. But the more Boas considered this problem, the more uneasy he was with such conclusions. So Boas applied his cultural relativist approach. He shifted attention away from the Indian languages to the linguists themselves and concluded that the issue was not with the language but with the ways that linguists apperceived (perceive a new experience in relation to past experiences) the sounds of the languages they were studying. In other words, there were no alternating sounds. The linguists were mishearing.
As evidence, Boas applied this thinking to his own studies of Inuit languages. He provided a list of a variety of spellings for given words, noting how researchers had interpreted differences based on their own native languages (for example, native English-speaking linguists will apperceive the pronunciations differently than native German-speaking linguists, thus they will spell the words in uniquely English or German ways). Further, Boas also found that Native American speakers also misheard the sounds produced by the linguists’ native languages, demonstrating that the apperception went both ways. These findings about sound perception are analogous to the way language affects color perception. It’s not that language makes people color-blind or “sound-blind” (i.e., physically incapable of perceiving colors or sounds), it just instills an apperception that makes it difficult to perceive colors/sounds in the same way as people from other cultures with radically different languages.
Finally, Boas was well known for being an activist. He felt that the first obligation of a scientist is to truth and that scientists have a responsibility to speak out on social and political problems. Boas is considered a bellwether of the shifting views of race and racism in the United States in the early 20th century. Boas passionately fought against the reigning understandings of people of color as “primitives” that were biologically and culturally inferior to whites. Boas also trained some of the most well known and influential early anthropologists, including Zora Neale Hurston (a woman of color who was a folklorist and wrote Their Eyes Were Watching God), Margaret Mead (who wrote Coming of Age in Samoa and gave George W. Bush a B+ in anthropology at Yale), and Ruth Benedict (who advocated a passionate humanism and continued Boas’s fight against racism in her work Patterns of Culture).
Franz Boas’s commitment to scientifically informed social justice and his dedication to bringing empiricism into cultural anthropology are just some of the reasons that I love Papa Boas. His methodological skepticism towards ethnocentrism, his passionate criticisms of pseudoscientific racist ideologies, and this silly photo below (background story here) are just a few of the reasons that you should love him, too.